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  > Rugs & Carpets Glossary    
Rugs & Carpets Glossary:



Abbas Mirza:

Abbas Mirza (1789- 1833)
Abbas Mirza
Qajar Prince
He was a younger son of the shah, Feth Ali shah (Qajar Dynasty). He fought with Russia. In 1814 Persia was compelled to make a disadvantageous peace. Abbas was an intelligent prince, possessed some literary taste, and is noteworthy on account of the comparative simplicity of his life. He died at Mashad in 1833.
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Abrash Rug
Abrash rug
This refers to the hue or color change found on many older rugs, particularly those woven by nomad tribes. Abrash also is indication of traditional materials and dyeing practices. The variations in color are usually the result of inconsistent dyeing of the wool, or through the introduction of a new wool batch while weaving the carpet.
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First Persian Empire
A Persian dynasty that ruled Persian empire's (6th-4th BC). Perspolis(Takht-e-Jamshid) is ruins of their palaces near Shiraz in south IRAN. The historian claim there was carpets in the main palace that made of wool and gold wire.
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Nader Shah Afshar
A group of Turkic-speaking nomads whose primary are of their living is villages around KERMAN(KIRMAN) in southeastern IRAN. The most famous person on this tribe was NADER SHAH (King Nader), the founder of Afshar dynasty, ruled from 1736 - 1747 A.D
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All-over Pattern:

AllOver Pattern, VARAMIN
All Over Pattern
This is a term used to describe the pattern of a rug whose field has no central medallion.
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Alum (Aluminum Sulfate - Al2(SO4)3.14H2O):

Aluminum Sulfate Powder
Turkish Knots
A white crystalline compound, Al2(SO4)3, used chiefly in paper making, water purification, sanitation, and tanning. Alum(Aluminum Sulfate) is widely applied as inorganic coagulant for clarification of water treatment to make clear water for industrial and drinking. ALUM also used as mordant to allow dyes absorb by wool fibers in traditional dying.
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Aniline Dye:

Aniline Dye
Aniline Molecule
A synthetic dye made from coal tar. In the early 1900's it was banned in Persia because the dyes were not colorfast.
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Antique Finish:

Antique Finish
Antique Finish Rug
Chinese Rug
A modern chemical washing procedure that produces softer tones or antiques the rug. This is most common practice for Chinese, Indian and Pakistani rugs that change the colors of the rug to make it more marketable.
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Eslimi (Arabesque) design rug, Safavid period, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
An ornate linear design of intertwined floral and geometrical figures.
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Ardabil Rug:

thirty-four and a half feet by seventeen and a half
The Ardebil carpet
Victoria and Albert Museum
17 by 34 feet
Made (1539-1540)
The city of ARDABIL(ARDEBIL) is located at distance of 639 kilometers from TEHRAN. Ardabil is also well known for probably the most famous carpet in the world, this rug was approximately made around 1539. The original Ardabil rug was acquired by the Victoria Albert's museum in 1893 for a bargain $4000 (an outrageous price for this period). The caratouche tells us that it was made by the order of the Persian King Shah Tahmasp by a weaver named Masuod al Kashani. A second much smaller rug is to be found in the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. This second rug is believed to have been used as a source of repair for the original.(More)
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Ardeshir Babakan:

Ardeshir Babakan , Temple Firous Abad, Fars Province(IRAN)
Ardeshir Babakan Temple
Ardeshir Babakan, the founder of the Sasanian empire in ancient Persia. At the time where Ardeshir Babakan ascended to the power, diverse rules already had been established. Ardeshir created a powerful central authority. After its death in 241 DC, its son, Shahpour I, Ascended to the throne. In the 40 years that if had followed, 7 successors had governed Persia. In 326 DC, Shahpour II king became. In the beginning of its reign, Persia faced diverse incursions of the Arabs of Bahrain and Mesopotâmia, remaining victorious to the end.

The Kings Sasanian empire:
  • Ardeshir Babakan
  • Shapur I
  • Shapur II
  • Bah- ram V
  • Quoad I
  • Khosrow Anoshirvan
  • Khosrow Parviz
  • Pourandukht
  • Azarmidukht
  • Yazdigard III
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Art Silk:

Art Silk rug Bokhara
Art Silk Rug
Short for artificial silk, it describes the use of mercerized cotton or artificial fiber that attempts to take on the appearance of silk. The fiber is very soft to the touch and is used to create the look and feel of silk without the cost. Sometimes used to deceive potential buyers. Artificial silk, normally made with mercerized cotton. It looses its sheen when used and doesn't wear well.
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Ashik Border
Ashik Border
This is a diamond-shaped figure with serrated edges found primarily on Turkmen pieces and some Asian pile weaves.
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Asymmetric knots (Turkish):

Turkish Knots
Asymmetric knots also known as Turkish knots are generally used in northwestern,western, southwestern and some portion of northeastern IRAN(quochan). The structure of these rugs as you can see in the picture. Asymmetric knots may be open to the left or right.
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Aubosson Rug
Fine flat carpets woven in France from the 15th to 19th Centuries. They were derived from Moorish weaving with the assistance of Architects and Artists of the royal court. French design flat weave rug normally with a floral center medallion and pastel colors. Originally made in FRANCE as a pileless carpet, usually Aubussons have a floral medallion in pastel colors. The designs of these rugs have also been adapted to pile carpets and are now woven in India and China.
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Aminster Rug
A type of power loom for making machine woven rugs. Very intricate designs using many colors (The Original Karastan Collection, for example) are possible on an axmin-ster loom.
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Azerbaijan comprises of three provinces: Ardebil, Western Azerbaijan, and Eastern Azerbaijan. The major cities are Tabriz, Ardebil ,Orumyeh, Ahar, Khoy.
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Bakhshayesh rug
Bakhshaish rug
A small village in the Iranian Azerbaijan which is located southwest of Heriz. The area is mostly known for its late 19th century(woven 1780-1900) carpet production which includes large room size rugs with either the Herati or central medallion patterns. Rugs frequently resemble antique Herizes in design and technique.
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Bakhtiari Rug (Kheshti Rug design)
Bakhtiari Rug
The Bakhtiari confederation of tribes is large and powerful, covering much of central and southwestern Iran (Persia). Small rugs and trappings are woven by migratory Bakhtiari, while large carpets of great magnificence are woven in the settled villages. The most classic pattern is the garden design of repeated squares or diamonds, each of which encloses a tree or blossom motif. Their name translates roughly as "the lucky ones". A tribe located mostly in western Iran which is known for weavings of rugs having compartments filled with brightly colored garden motifs. Rugs can be either single wefted on cotton foundation (village rugs) or double wefted on wool foundation (nomadic rugs). Other designed rugs include those with a large bold central medallion, or others with long vertical stripes filled with small botehs.(More)
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Baluch "BELOUCH":

Baluch Rug
Baluch Rug
A nomadic tribe living in Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan. Baluch weave many types of small rugs, animal trappings and tent furnishings. They favor deep tones of blue, dark brown, earthy red and touches of natural ivory. They are simply but sturdily made, entirely of wool,often with ends and edges reinforced by the use of goat hair. Most rugs are small, double wefted, asymmetrical and tribal in character. Designs are usually of tree of life, prayer rugs and all over patterns of various guls and botehs. (More)
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Bergama Rug
Bergama Rug
Courtesy of
Bergama is a little town in northwest part of Turkey, around eighty villages that are involve weaving Bergama rugs. Bergama rugs have been woven as wool on wool material combination while wefts are all red. Bergama usually are small and majority are square shape. Bergama are loosely woven and have thick pile. Those woven in Canakkale (Ancient city known as Troy, the city of Heroes) are slightly larger. Motifs can be divided by two main groups:

  • KAZAK type
  • Turkish type.
KAZAK type rugs have big geometrical designs, these ones remind KAZAK - Gendje region rugs. In Turkish type usually designs are very floral and embroidered with leaves of the pine trees. They consist mainly of two colors, the dark reds and blues. In these rugs red color, which is used for dyeing the wool yarns, makes the pile less thick than the rest of the surface after a certain time, so blue motifs appear higher. The evil eyes that you see at the edges give them an exceptionally unusual appearance.(More)

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Bessarabian Kilim -1870
Bessarabian kilim
Courtesy of
This type of kilim originally woven in section of Romania that is now part of the Ukraine. Designs usually feature curvilinear floral patterns and are more formal, sophisticated and elaborate than those found in other areas of southeast Europe.This type of kilim originates in a part of Romania that is now part of the Ukraine. Designs usually feature curvilinear floral patterns and are more formal, sophisticated and elaborate than those found in other areas of southeast Europe.
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Bleeding (Color running):

Color Bleeding( Color Running)
Color Running
The color bleeding sometimes occurs when rug is getting washed. Dyed yarn which has not been washed properly after the dyeing process may bleed or run into the surrounding areas. Bleeding can also occur to chemical dyes which are not stable or color fast. Most common color affected is the red pigment. There are some chemical treatments which can remove this bleeding.

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Bibibibaff rug
Bibibaff are are excellent example of BAKHTIARI rugs. Literally it is Grandmother's weave. In Bahktiari rugs it refers to the finest work. The implication is that it is the best work of the most experienced weaver for family use.
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Bijar rug
Bijar rug
An important center of rug production in northwest Iran which is inhabited by a Kurdish population. Antique rugs which were woven on wool foundation had three wefts between every row of knots. This made the rugs extremely heavy, stiff and almost impossible to fold. Contemporary rugs are usually double wefted and are woven on a cotton foundation. For many decades, the Bidjar has been called the "cast-iron rug of the East". The creation of simple peasants in Kurdistan, northwestern Iran (Persia), Bidjar rugs are closely and heavily woven with a firm, dense nap. A "double-wefted" construction is common, where the weaver in her knotting pulls alternate warps into line behind the neighboring ones, so the knots are closely stacked together at an angle rather than lying loosely side by side. This style of weaving, combined with excellent, lanolin-rich wool, creates a rug of almost unbelievable durability.(More)
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Rug Blocking
Rug Blocking
Courtesy of
The act of stretching flat and tacking down a wet rug that is wrinkled or misshapen, wetting again, then allowing the rug to dry.
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Rug Borders
Rug Borders
The outside area that surrounds the design of a rug much like a picture frame. The frame for the field of a rug. It is generally the widest element in the framing located next to the guard bands or stripes.
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Boteh Design
Boteh Pattern
A rug design named after the FARSI (Official language in IRAN) word for immature flower or palm leaf. BOTEH is a widespread pattern of Persian origin (Persian boteh = cluster of leaves).

Various interpretations including:

  • Flame
  • Tear drop
  • Pine cone
  • Pear
  • Tree
In addition, BOTEH design is well known in west a pear, pine cone or the Paisley pattern motif.

Frequently BOTEH's are found to decorate the entire field as a repetitive all over pattern. A BOTEH motif from Kashmir shawls was copied in the early 19th century in Paisley, Scotland.

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Braided rug:

Braided rug
Braided rug
A rug made by braiding yarn around a core and shaping it into a rug. Braids can be tubular (shaped around only one core, which forms a round braid) or flat (shaped around two core yarns, which makes a flat braid).
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Bukhara(Bocara, Bokhara, Bokara):

Bukhara rug
Bokhara rug
Bokara (Bokhara) is a city in today Uzbekistan and the traditional trading center for Turkmen tribal carpets. Today, rugs called BOUKARA are generally commercial copies knotted in Pakistan and India. Turkoman rugs are also referred to as Bokhara design.

The pattern most associated with these rugs is that of rows of repeated geometric motifs, or Guls, woven on a red background. A famous central Asian city, which acted as a collection point for Turkoman tribal carpets.
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Burn Test:

Burn Test
Burn Test
A small tuft of fibers from a rug may be burned to test for its content. For example cotton has a vegetable smell when burned. Wool smells faintly like hair. Silk smells distinctly like human hair when burned.(More)
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Rug Cartoonist
Rug Cartoonist
Map of design and colors drawn on paper used as a guide to weave a rug. A colored drawing on graph paper that a weaver follows to craft a rug design.
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Handheld carving tools are used to accentuate details of hooked, tufted and hand knotted rugs, or to create a 3-D effect on solid color rugs.
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Rug Cartoonist
A generic name describing boldly colored geometric designs originating from the Caucasus Mountains in Southern Russia.
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Chahr Mahal:

Chahr Mahal weaver
Chahr Mahal weaver
The province of "Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari" is a high mountainous region. The province is roughly 2000 meters above the sea level located in the center of two mountain chains of the interior Zagros mountains and the province of Isfahan.

The main cities are:
  • Shahr-e-Kurd
  • Boroojen
  • Lurdekan
  • Farsan
  • Ardal
Share Kurd is the administrative center of the province.
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Chemical Wash:

Produces an overall luster by reacting to the dye stuffs in the design and by removing short staple yarns from the face of the rug.
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Chobi Rug:

Chobi Rug
Chobi Rug
The word "Chobi" refers to rugs and carpets that were made in Afghanistan and Pakistan (Peshawar). The meaning of word "Chobi" means something that has color like "wood". In Farsi(language in IRAN and Afghanistan) "Chob" means "Wood" and "Chobi" means color like "wood". The majority of the Chobi rugs and carpets have light brownish color. You can find different design Chobi design rugs however the majority of them have light brownish color. These rugs do not have long history in world only around 10- 13 years ago came to the US, however have high demand due to their beautiful coloration. Chobi rugs usually are chemically washed to get antique looks. The majority of Chobi rugs do not have high quality and resale value.
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Derakhti, Tree of Life Design
Tree of Life
Derakhti (like a Tree in FARSI)(Tree of Life) is very unique design in Iran. Tree is symbol of life,wealth, health and also Heaven. This is beautiful design.
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Dhurrie Indian 19th century
A reversible, flat-woven rug with a loose weave and a casual feel, often brightly colored. Dhurries are usually woven in India with either cotton or wool. The design is created by interweaving colored weft threads through the warp threads.
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Directional Rug:

Any rug having a design which is intended to be viewed from one particular view point. A prayer rug or a pictorial rug are good examples of such.
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Dorkhosh Rug , around 1850
Courtesy of
A town in northeast Dorokhsh is a town located northeast to MASHAD(Iran) noted for producing rugs with floral motifs and medallions. Older rugs have wool foundations while newer ones have cotton. The jufti knot is mostly used.
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Tabriz Dozar 200x 135 cm
Tabriz size DOZAR
6' 6" x 4' 6"(200 x 135cm)
Dozar ,a Farsi (Official Language of IRAN) word, is classical terminology to define size of rugs. A rug about 6' 6" x 4' 6"(200 x 135cm).
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Dry rot:

Dry Rot Damage
Dry Rot
Deterioration of the rug pile and foundation over the years when it becomes dry and brittle. Also caused by liquids or moisture remaining on a rug for an extended time causing the rug to rot. Dry rot usually occurs among antique rugs with cotton foundations. The airborne microscopic fungus will feeds on cellulose fibers. Cracking sounds or the breaking of a rug's foundation is a result of dry rot.
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Carving around a design or symbol to enhance the look of the rug. This process is commonly used on some Chinese and Tibet rugs.
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Endless knot:

Endless Knots
Endless knot
A Buddhist emblem symbolizing long duration, often used with other symbols. The mark of Shrivatsa (beloved of the Goddess) adorns the breast of Vishni and represents the devotion in his heart for Lakshmi, the Goddess of wealth and good fortune. Overlapping without a beginning or end, it symbolizes the infinite wisdom of nature.
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These are usually the longer sides of the rug. They may be selvaged or overcast to create a durable finish.
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These are the shorter sides of the rug, consisting of a flat-woven area. They may be anywhere from 1 inch to 1 ft deep.
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Ersari Turkmen rug
Ersari Turkmen rug
A large mostly settled tribe of northwest Afghanistan along the Amu Darya valley who make both urban and tribal rugs. They are renowned for the quality of their nomadic saddles and tent gear. Recently, many Ersari have settled in Pakistan(More)
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Eastern Turkestan:

East Turkestan
Eastern Turkestan
An area of western China in the southwestern part of Xinjiang province. Rugs from this region are sometimes referred to as Samarkand. Common sizes are 4x8 or 4x9 and popular designs include three medallions, pots with flowers and thirdly all over geometric elements throughout the field.Return to top of page

Elephant foot:

The Turkoman and Afghan's fat octagons, known as Filpa or elephant's foot pattern, are quartered with green or blue and orange or rose-pink sections carrying trefoil flowers or "trees." The octagons also sometimes have center filled flower groups suggestive of star forms.
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Farahan rug
Farahan Rug
An area north of the city of Arak in western Iran. The region is known for finely knotted late 19th century rugs with designs such as Herati, Mina Khani or Gol Hinnai. Most rugs have cotton foundation with wefts dyed in either blue or pink. Green color is commonly used.The areas of Fereghan and Seraband produce finely knotted pieces, comparable both in style and quality to weavings from Senneh. They usually have a tight allover field pattern of tiny floral motifs, such as the Herati design. Early examples of Fereghan carpets, woven in the early and mid-19th century are characterized by a distinctive greenish-yellow color and other extremely vibrant colors. (More)
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Fars Province in South of IRAN
Fars Province (IRAN)
A large region in southwestern Iran which is famous for high quality tribal weavings. Important tribes include the Qashqai, Khamseh, Lurs and Afshar. The main city in the region is Shiraz. Most nomadic rugs from this region are woven on wool foundation and produced on horizontal village looms.
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Lonely Planet Farsi (Persian) Phrasebook
Lonely Planet Farsi (Persian) Phrasebook
Yavar Dehghani
Farsi(Parsi) is not only the name of the official language in Iran but also of the Republic of Tajikistan, and Afghanistan, and different dialects of this language are spoken in many regions of south and central Asia.
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Fath Ali Shah:

Fath Ali Shah
(1797 - 1834)
Qajar King
Founder of the Qajar dynasty. Most of his reign was spent in internal and external warfare. He managed to maintain himself against other claimants to the throne but was not so fortunate in his wars with Russia.
The Columbia Encyclopedia, Fifth Edition Copyright ?1994, 1995 Columbia University Press.
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Rug Field
Field rug
The largest area in a rug that is usually enclosed by borders.
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Flat weave is a technique of weaving that no knots are used to weave a Textile. The warp strands are used as the foundation and the weft stands are used as both part of the foundation and in creating the patterns. The weft strands are simply passed (woven) through the warp strands. Flatweave used for Kilims, soumakhs, Dhurrie and Jajim. Basically it's a textile without a pile.
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The strands of warp and weft which make up the base of the rug. The knots of the pile are woven into those strands and held securely in place.
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 FRug Fringe
Rug Fringe
The fringes are basically warps which extend from the foundation at the end of a rug. Their basic role is to hold the rug together and keep the wefts from unraveling.
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Gabehh Lion Design
Gabbeh Lion Design
Thick, long-piled rugs produced by the tribes of Fars originally for their own use and not for the commercial market. The word Gabbeh means unclipped. Gabbeh are usually woven on horizontal looms. There are following are main Gabbehs:

  • Basic
  • Amalehbaft
  • Kashkooli
  • Luribaft Gabbeh.
Gabbehs with picture of Lions are more expensive. (More)
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Garden Carpet(Kheshti):

Bakhtiari, Khshti Design(Garden Flower)
Bakhtiari rug
Garden Flower(Kheshti)
Carpets with compartments containing floral or garden motifs. The earliest of Garden Carpet design were produced in Persia in the 16th century. KHESHTI is common word for this design in IRAN.
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Ganje Rug
Genje rug
Courtesy of
Genje, formerly Kirovabad , city (1989 pop. 278,000), in Azerbaijan, on the Gyandzha River. Ganje is famous for 19th long rugs (mostly 3ft or 4ft by 9ft or 10ft) depicting diagonal and colorful bars throughout the field. (More)
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Ghreh Magazine
Ghereh Magazine
Turin, ITALY
Ghereh means "Knot" in Farsi. It also name of Magaizine publishing in ITALY. GHEREH is a "slim, not-overloaded with advertisements, informed on current affairs, and open to outside collaboration whilst avoiding academic severity" magazine based on Taher Sabahi Editor & Publisher description. Ghreh magazine is publishing in English, German, Italian.(More)
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Ghiordes Rug
Ghiordes Prayer rug
Courtesy of
A town in western Turkey in which many small (usually 3x5ft) prayer rugs were woven. Knot densities are between 100-200 per square inch. Typical designs depict small geometric and pointed mihrab surrounded by three or more borders. (More)
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Gorevan Rug
Gorevan rug
A town in northwest Iran in the vicinity of Heriz. In the trade, Gorevan is used to denote a grade of Heriz rugs which have a coarse weave with a Heriz design.(More)
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Turkmen GUL
Courtesy of
Meaning flower in Farsi. This term also refers to the octagonal or angular repetitive medallions found on Turkoman rugs.
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Haji Jalili:

Haji Jalili, Cerica 1900
Haji Jalili(1900)
Courtesy of
Haji Jalili is well known master weaver all around the world especially among high-end antique rug collectors. He made some of the finest rugs in 19th century (1800-1890) in Tabriz. He was originally was from town of Marand (40 miles northwest of Tabriz).
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Hali Magazines
HALI Magazines
A modern Turkish word for carpet or rugs. HALI also is name of very interesting magazine about rugs and carpets.(More)
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Hamedan rug
Hamedan rug
HAMEDAN is one of the oldest cities not only in IRAN but probably in the world. The carpets that are made in HAMEDAN usually have a geometric patterns.The HAMDEN village rugs have an important characteristic that is all have a single-wefted medallion.(More)
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Handmade rug:

Excellent Nain Handmade rug
Handmade Rug
Nain Rug
A rug that is either entirely hand knotted (finished with knots) or hand tufted (yarn is pushed through the canvas using a tufting instrument). These rugs generally are made of wool or other fine materials such as silk. They are generally more expensive than machine-made rugs.
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Hatchli rug
Courtesy of
An old design found in ENSI Turkmen rugs in which the field is divided into sections by stripes or bars. Hatchi used to cover the tents.
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Herati Motif
Herati Motif
An old Mongol (Turkish Pattern) that has fish and turtle design.A very common repeated field design which consists of a flower centered in a diamond with curving leaves located outside the diamond and parallel to each side. The term can be also referred to "Mahi" - a fish design in Farsi. A rug pattern consisting of a rosette surrounded by four leaves. The rosette is often found inside a diamond shape. A rosette surrounded by a fish pattern repeating throughout the field of a rug.
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Hereke Silk Rug
Hereke Silk Rug
Hereke in western Turkey has been a center for fine weaving since the days of the Ottoman Empire. The finest contemporary Turkish rugs are still made in Hereke, as they were a century ago. Wool, silk, and metallic threads are all used. Though Hereke is in Turkey they use the Persian Senna knot in rugs made there.
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Heriz Rug
Heriz Rug
A geometric medallion rugs woven in several small village of HERIZ. The rugs of Heriz are large, boldly designed and firmly woven. The oversized geometric medallions were once referred to as "shield patterns" and they are usually crisply delineated against a rich red or a dark blue field, with a generous use of ivory. Large-scale "turtle-design" borders are common. . Commercial carpets bearing the Heriz design are woven in every rug-producing county in the world.(More)
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Hooked rug:

A rug made by using a hooking device (either a hand-operated one or machine one) to push and loop yarn through a canvas. This is either left looped (creating a "loop hook" or "latch hook" rug) or sheared to create an open pile.
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Ilkhan Dynasty:

Halagu thus founded in Iran the Il-Khanid dynasty (1265- 1335). The Ilkhanids: Il-khan (Subordinate of the Khan) was the title assumed by Hülegü (1256-65), after he became the Mongol ruler of Iran and Khorasan(Northeast Province where today Mashad is located). The Ilkhanids eventually converted to Islam and adopted the Iranian culture. It was from that period that the material culture of Iran flourished after the severe blow caused by the Mongol invasion.

Il-Khanid dynasty kings:
  • Abaqa (1265-1282)
  • Takudar (1282-1284)
  • Arghun (1284-1291)
  • Gaykhatu (1291-1295)
  • Ghazan (1295-1304)
  • Uljaytu (1304-1316)
  • Abu Sa'id (1317-1334)
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Indigo Plant (Indigofera tinctoria):

Wild Indigo,Indigofera_tinctoria
Indigo Plant
Courtesy of
Ann Lena Anderherg
Blue color chemically synthesis in 1880 however for centuries, blue color extracted from plant. Indigo is family of plants that growing in wild. Blue color occurs by oxidization of yellow juice of these plants.
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Kerman Antique with Inscription
Antique Kerman
Script which is woven into an oriental rug. It can be a date, name or initials of a weaver, some religious or poetic quote or a name of a religious donor.
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Janipur City
Jaipur city
Courtesy of
A north central Indian city in the province of Rajasthan. The city is known for having prisoners weave rugs for commercial purposes. Rugs are based on 17th century Indian Mughal designs.
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Jajim Shahsavan
Shahsavan Tribe
A Flatweave made by combining a few warp strips together. Jajims will then be made into bed covers or curtains. They are most commonly found in northwest Iran, Turkey and the Caucasus. In the past Iranian used to put the Jajim (as a kind of blanket) on their traditional heater called CORCI and lie under this blanket to heat themselves. Jajim also used as a table cloth.
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Joshaghan Rug
Josheghan Rug
A town in north central Iran, thirty miles southwest of Kashan. This weaving center is mostly known for the design of an all over lozenge pattern - each consisting of a geometric floral motif. Rugs are woven on cotton with a knot count of 100-200 knots per square inch.
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Turkish knots
Turkish Jufti Knots
Jufti is a format knots formation in a rug that a knot is tied over four strands of warp as opposed to the usual two strands. Jufti knots or some times called FALSE knots can be Persian or Turkish style knots. Jufti knots results less martial and looser rug , usually cheap quality rugs such as some Pakistani rugs are using Jufti format.
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Jute framer
Jute Framer
A fiber from a plant which is mostly used in the manufacture of burlap. Jute is a fine natural fiber and is very versatile, adaptable yarn which weaves well, looks and feels good and comes in natural tones.
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Karachopf(Karatchoph) Kazak rug:

Karatchoph Kazak Rug
Courtesy of
There are many debates about where Karachopf Kazak rugs were made. Some experts claim that village of Karachopf is located on east of TABLISI in GEORGIA. Karachopf Kazak rugs are highly valued in many auction houses. There is always high demand for the ones in good conditions.(More)
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Kashkoli(Kashkouli, Kaskuli, Kashkooli):

A woman from the
A Kashkoli woman
Courtesy of
Kashkouli (Kashkooli, Kashkoli) are among the largest sub-tribe of Qashqai tribe who are living in Fars province in IRAN. Kashkouli are divided in two lager groups. The Kashkoli Bozorg (4862 family) and Kashkoli Kuchack (650 family). Kashkouli tribe is producing very famous Gabbeh and small size rugs. Their rugs usually are extremely fine with cotton or silk wrap. The pile is always wool. (More)
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Kazak(Kazakh, Kazak, Kasak, Gazakh):

Kazak Rug
Kelim Weaver
Qazax(KAZAK) is a city of about twenty thousand people in Northwest Azerbaijan.

The people of this region are Azeri Turks, Armenians, Albanians, and Northern Caucasian. There are also Greeks, Russians, and Georgians, in the area but they do not appear to have made a significant number of rugs.

This is not to say however that Kazaks wove the rugs that we call Kazak. The rugs we see are mostly post 1830 when most of the weavers of Kazak rugs were Armenians. Still the designs thay drew upon in many cases were from the Kazaks who had lived in that area prior to the Russian capture of Erevan. (More)
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Kelim Weaver
Kelim Weaver
One of the Flatweave construction types in which the weft yarns form the flat looped face of the rug. (More)
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Khal Mohammadi:

Khal Mohammadi
Khal Mohammadi
Courtesy of
Khal Mohammad is the man and his rugs are called Khal Mohammadi. Ending a word with an "i" is equivalent to using " 's " in English. Khal Mohammad owns looms in Mazar-i-Sheriff(Afghanistan), Andkhoy(Afghanistan), and Kunduz(Afghanistan). He is based in North Mazar-i-Sheriff and has a store there as well as Kabul and Peshawar Pakistan. The key to his success is extremely innovative use of natural dyes.(More)
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Koliai(kolyai) Rug
Kolyai(Koliai) rug
The Kolyai or Koliai are one of the largest of the Kurdish tribes in Iran. They live in the province of Hamadan. Kolyai is also the name of a Kurdish village 50 miles west of Hamadan in northwest Iran.

Kolyai (Koliai) rugs are usally bright and lively colors, usually with a large central medallion in hexagonal Herati diamond design and beveled spandrels. These rugs are not originally made to be sold, but intended as practical dowry articles such as floor coverings, blankets, storage bags, saddle blankets, or as insurance against future hard times. Many Koliai carpets are runners of great length, 20 to 40 feet being common. (More)
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Konya Rug
Konya rug
A famous Turkish city of rug production. It was a weaving center since at least the Seljuk invasion in the eleventh century. From 1063 to 1309 it was the capital of the Seljuk Turks. Prayer rugs with red backgrounds are popular as well as Yastiks and mats. . (More)
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Kulah Rug, Turkey
Prayer Kulah Rug
Courtesy of
Russell Fling
Kulah is small town near Ghiordes. Kulah rugs have similar Mehrab patterns and have coarse weave and texture.
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Kurdish Woman, IRAN
Kurdish Woman
Courtesy of
Kurds are (a non-Arab) minority population that inhabits the region known as Kurdistan, an extensive plateau and mountain area in Southwest Asia (c.74,000 sq mi/191,660 sq km), including parts of east Turkey, notheast Iraq, and west and northwest Iran and small group in Ghuochan (northwest Iran-khorasan province) and smaller sections of northeast Syria and Armenia.
The region lies astride the Zagros Mts. (Iran) and the eastern extension of the Taurus Mts. (Turkey) and extends in the south across the Mesopotamian plain and includes the upper reaches of the Tigris and Euphrates riversPopulation distribution among the Kurds.
Total population of about 16 million:

  • Turkey - 43%
  • Iran - 31%
  • Iraq - 18%
  • Syria - 6%
  • Caucasus - 2%

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Ladik Prayer Rug
Ladik Prayer Rug
A famous Turkish carpet production center as early as the 18th century. Ladik is most known for small prayer rugs with triple arch mihrab, stepped mihrab, or two column mihrab. Main colors are red and blue and the foundation is made of wool.(More)
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Liberty of London:

Liberty of London
Liberty of London
Liberty was founded in 1874 by Arthur Lasenby Liberty. The shop opened in 1875 selling ornaments, fabric and objets d'art from Japan and the East and has always been associated with innovative designs, and this new collection continues the trend. The department store, located on London's busy Regent Street, has been a Mecca for tourist for many years.

British Company:

Regent Street
London W1B 5AH
United Kingdom.
Tel: +44 020 7734 1234
Fax: +44 020 7573 9876
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Logwood Plant
Logwood Plant
Logwood plants are small and full of thorn. Logwood was native to tropical forest of Central America and West Indies. Later and introduced into other tropical regions in the world. The brown-red heartwood is the source of the dyebipinnate leaves and racemes of small bright yellow flowers and yielding a hard brown or brownish-red heartwood used in preparing a black dye. It is still used more than any other natural dyes. Local names for the wood include campeachy wood ,blackwood Logwood, campeachy, bloodwood tree, Haematoxylum campechianum.
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Madder Plant
Madder Plant
Madder (Rubia tinctorum) or dyer's madder, as it is also known, is a perennial herb of the family Rubiaceae native to the Mediterranean and Near East, with a long, reddish-brown, much-branched rhizome, red fibrous roots and rough, square, ascending, prickly stems which branch at the top. The stiff, lanceolate, sessile leaves have prickly margins and grow in whorls up the stem. The flowers are small, yellow in color and are arranged in axillary and terminal dichasial cymes. The fruit is a globose, fleshy, purple, one-seeded berry. Madder was once widely grown for a source of a permanent red dye.
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Shasavan Mafrash
Made By Shahsavan Tribe
Mafrash are very large bags which function for nomads as chests. During their migrations, Mafrash are filled with kitchen weaver, wrapped in bedclothes and the like, and carried in pairs, by camels. After settlement, Mafrash used as back cushions. Mafrash also had function as decorative peace in nomad life. Majority of tribe used Mafrash however the most famous one are from SHASAVAN tribe. (More)

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Mashad, Reza Holy Shrine
Imam Reza Holy Shrine
MASHAD is located 909 kilometer far from Tehran in Northeastern IRAN. This is city consider by Shi'ite (Shiite) due to the shrine of Imam Reza (PBUH), the eighth Imam of the Shi'ite (Shiite) Mashad was a small place by the name of Sanabad in the vicinity of the old city of Tus. The city of Mashad and its suburbs have a population of more than two million people. The city's climatic condition is varied with very cold winters, usually mild summers and pleasant springs and autumns. (More)

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Melas rug, Turkey
Melas Rug
Courtesy of
Melas rugs are usually finely woven. Melas is a small town on southwestern Turkey. The Mihrab design is very common in Melas rugs.(More)
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Mina Khani:

Mina Khani Design Varamin Rug
Mina Khani Design
Mina Khani is beautiful design . In this design field is covered with daisies connected together with lines that form diamonds or circles in an all-over layout. Blue background color is very common in this design specially for rug made in Varamin. You can also find Mina Khani design in rugs from Bijar, Baluch , Ferahan and surrounding villages.
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Mohammad Mossadeq:

Mohammad Mossadagh
Dr.Mohammad Mossadeq
Prime Minster
Mohammad Mossadegh was born on May 19, 1882. His father "Hedayat Ashtiani" was the Finance Minister of King Naser al-Din Qajar, and his mother was a granddaughter of the Crown Prince Abbas Mirza. By the summer of 1953, the British and American governments initiated a joint Anglo-American plan for the covert overthrow of Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh, the Prime Minister of Iran. The plan called Operation AJAX with Kermit Roosevelt, the CIA Mideast Agent in charge (a grandson of Theodore Roosevelt and a distant cousin of Franklin Delano Roosevelt). "So this is how we will get rid of the madman Mossadeq in Iran" announced John Foster Dulles to a group of top Washington policy makers in June 1953. On March 4, 1967, Dr. Mossadegh died of cancer at the age of 84. His body was buried in one of the rooms of his Ahmad Abad (small town near QAZVIN)residence. On the first anniversary of Mossadegh's pass away after the 1979 Revolution, about one million Iranians honored their national hero by gathering in Ahmad Abad.(small town near QAZVIN)
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Mordants are the metallic salts, generally of iron, tin, copper or aluminum, used to attach certain natural dyes to the wool fibers.
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Nahavand Rugs
Nahavand Rug
NANAHAVAND is an ancient and historical city. It is located 150 kilometers south of HAMEDAN. NAHAVAND is a weaving center for single wefted rugs on cotton foundation. Length of rug is usually twice its width. NAHAVAND weavers usually using Turkish (Symmetrical) knots in their rugs and runners. (More)
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Namakdan(Salt Bag):

Namakdan(Salt Bag)
Courtesy of
Namakdan (Namak= Slat in Farsi & Dan= container) means a Salt Bag. The nomads need salt not only for tier daily life but also for their animals during their migration. Namdakdans (Slat- backs are designed so only one hand can pass through it to get salt out of bag. (More)
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Native Navajo Weaver
Native Navajo Weaver
The Navajo Tribe, Native American, have been living in southwestern of the US at the corner of New Mexico, Arizona and south portion of UTAH. Today the Navajo live on the largest reservation in the United States. The number of tribal members ranks second only to the Cherokee. Navajo rugs are very famous for unique flatwoven design. There is very high demand for their original Navajo rugs, however market is full of fake Navajo rugs made in Pakistan, India, Mexico and even Ukraine. Be very careful when you are buying Navajo from action houses.(More)
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Oak Tree Galls:

Oak Tree Galls
Galls on oak tree
Galls are the result of the abnormal growth of plant cells. They are caused by insects, mites, nematodes, bacteria or fungi. Some galls have been used to produce inks and dyes, and some are acceptable food for animals and man. A gall is an abnormal growth produced by a plant or other host under the influence of another organism. It involves enlargement and/or proliferation of host cells and provides both shelter and food or nutrients for the invading organism.
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Oltenia Rug Weaver
Oltenia Weaver
A type of kilim that is considered to be the finest of the Romanian kilims. Their designs usually include elaborately curving flower and leaf sprays.
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Pahlavi Dynasty:

Reza Shah Pahlavi, Fisrt Phalavi Dynasty
Reza Shah Pahlavi
Pahlavi Dynasty
Reza Khan was brought to power in a coup d'etat in 1921. The Qajar dynasty was ousted and Reza Khan proclaimed as Shahanshah by the Persian Majlis in 1925. The name of the country was altered to Iran (Land of the Aryans) in 1935. His son and successor, Muhammad Reza Shah, was forced into self-imposed exile by the Islamic revolution in 1979, Iran was proclaimed an Islamic Republic and the monarchy was abolished.
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Lotus flower commonly found on both geometric and curvilinear rugs.
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Pomegranate Plant:

Pomegranate Plant
The fresh or dried skin of the fruit is used for dyeing and if used with an alum mordant a yellow brownish shade will result. If an iron mordant is used, a brownish-black shade will result. In Oriental carpets and kilims, the pomegranate is a symbol of fertility and abundance because of it's many seeds. Return to top of page


Panderma Rug, Turkey
Panderma Rug
Courtesy of
Panderma is located northwestern Turkey. The majority of Panderma have beige,coral and or light green coloration. Panderma are very similar to Ghiordes. (More)
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Greeks called it "Persepolise" and Iranian call it "Takht-e-Jamshid", ruined capital of the ancient Iran, is located about 60 Kms north-east of Shiraz. It is one of the greatest artistic legacies of the ancient world, founded by Darius I (550-486 B.C.), an Acheamenid king, in 518 B.C. He intended to build a capital in his homeland unique throughout history. He decided to found the capital on the slope of a mountain now called Rahmat, located in the Marvdasht plain, regarded as a holy place by him. Takht-e Jamshid was completed by Xeroxes and Artaxerxes I who ruled Iran from 486 to 465 B.C. and from 465 to 425 respectively. The palaces were used by the Acheamenid kings up until they were destroyed by Alexander in 330 B.C.
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Parthian Empire(Parthian Dynasty):

Parthia Coin
Parthian King
The Parthian Empire is a fascinating period of Persian history closely connected to Greece and Rome. Ruling from 247 B.C. to A.D. 228 in ancient Persia (Iran), the Parthians defeated Alexander the Great's successors, the Seleucids, conquered most of the Middle East and southwest Asia, controlled the Silk Road and built Parthia into an Eastern superpower.

The Parthian empire revived the greatness of the Achaemenid empire and counterbalanced Rome's hegemony in the West. Parthia at one time occupied areas now in Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaidzhan, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine and Israel.
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Qajar Dynasty:

Agha Mohammad Khan (1794 - 1797)
Qajar Dynasty
Agha Mohammad Khan
Qajar were Turkmen tribe that held ancestral lands in present-day Azerbaijan, which then was part of Iran. In 1779, following the death of Mohammad Karim Khan Zand, the Zand Dynasty ruler of southern Iran, Agha Mohammad Khan, a leader of the Qajar tribe, set out to reunify Iran. Their Dynasty had started in 1794 and ended 1925.

Qajar Kings:
  • Agha Mohammad Khan (1794 - 1797)
  • Fath'Ali Shah (1797 - 1834)
  • Mohammad Shah (834 - 1848)
  • Naser o-Din Shah (1848 - 1896)
  • Mozaffar o-Din Shah (1896 - 1907)
  • Mohammed Ali Shah (1907 - 1909)
  • Ahmed Shah (1909 - 1925)
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    Qashqai Weaver
    Qashqai Weaver
    A confederacy of tribes living in southwestern Iran and known for high quality antique tribal rugs. These sought after rugs have wool foundation dyed in red, piled with asymmetrical knots and having knot counts of around 70-170 knots per square inch. Most popular design includes a hexagon medallion with four hooks surrounded by hundreds of small geometric and animals motifs throughout the field. Frequently, rugs will have a colorful barber pole used as a selvage. (More)
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    Rhubarb Plant
    Rhubarb Plant
    Rhubarb is a plant name for the many different species of Rheum, growing in the wild in the mountains of the Western and North-western provinces of Iran, Turkey and China and in the adjoining Tibetan territory. Oxalic acid (from rhubarb leaves) creates yellow to copper-red colors. The blade or green leaves of the plant are the part that is poisonous. They contain high concentrations of oxalic acid crystals which can cause serious problems when eaten. These crystals can cause the tongue and throat to swell, preventing breathing.(More)
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    Rosette Medallion
    Rosette Medallion
    Kashan Silk Rug
    Rosette is a circular arrangement of motif of motifs radiating out from the center and suggesting the petals of a rose. Found on the field, major or minor borders of carpets in manifold naturalistic and geometric forms.
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    Qom Runner
    Qom, IRAN
    A long narrow rug which usually has a width of up to three and a half feet. The ratio of the length vs. width is usually 5 to 1 or 3 to 1 however there are long runner as long as 18 to 1.
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    Safavid Dynasty:

    Shah Abbas I
    The Safavid (1499-1722) were descended from Sheikh Safi ad Din (1253 - 1334) of Ardabil, head of the Sufi order of Safaviyeh (Safawiyah), but about 1399 exchanged their Sunnite affiliation for Shi'ism. The Safavid were established Shiite Islam as a state religion of Iran, which became a major factor in the emergence of unified national consciousness' among the various ethnic and linguistic elements of the country.

    Safavid Kings:
    • Ismail I  (1501 - 1524)
    • Tahmasp  (1524 - 1576)
    • Ismail II  (1576 - 1577)
    • Mohammad  (1577 - 1587)
    • Abbas I, The Great  (1587 - 1629)
    • Safi I  (1629 - 1642)
    • Abbas II  (1642 - 1666)
    • Safi II  (1666 - 1694)
    • Soltan Hossein  (1694 - 1722)
    • Tahmasp II  (1722 - 1732)
    • Abbas III  (1732 - 1736)

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    Saffron Flower
    Saffron Flower
    The Greeks and Romans made a royal dye color with saffron and wealthy Romans perfumed their baths and homes with it. In the 14th-18th centuries, saffron was used as a medicine and spice in Europe. Dyeing is the oldest use of saffron. The yellow stigmata impart a deep yellow to fabrics. About 4000 blooms are required to produce one ounce of dye, so saffron has always been associated with wealth.
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    Aantique Serapi
    Antique Serapi
    Circa 1900
    Define a Serapi rugs is a hard task, Serapi rugs were made during 1800 -1920 in village of HERIZ. However, In the United States the highest quality of Heriz Carpets also called Serapi. Quality is higher than the average and knot counts are around 80 KPSI with the very best going up to 100 knots per square inch. Usually , 19th century Serapi rugs have dramatic expanse of rich brick-red framed by clear blues and creamy whites. Abrash, the subtle changes of color, accentuate its simplistic beauty of Serapi rugs. Serapi carpets are best known for their large, bold geometric patterns.
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    Sardinian Rug:

    Sardinian Rug
    The second largest island of Italy, a land of striking natural contrasts. It was founded by the Phoenicians and subsequently expanded by the Romans. Weaving is one of the most ancient expressions of Sardinian craftsmanship. The rugs of this Mediterranean island are one of its most precious products, with central section of figures or geometrical patterns. The material used is the Sardinian raw white cotton which is particularly hard-wearing.
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    Sasanian Dynasty:

    Persian King, Shapur II Sasanian
    Persian King
    Shapur II
    The Sasanians defeated the Parthians in 224 and established the Sasanian Empire. Sasanian Dynasty founded in AD 224 by Ardeshir I, and destroyed by the Arab invasions of the 630s. The capital was at Ctesiphon. The Sasanians made Zoroastrians the official state religion. Under the Sasanians, Persia reached the peak of its ancient glory, rivaling that of Rome; they revived Achemenid traditions and made Zoroastrianism their state religion.

    Sasanian Kings:
    • Shapur I (240-72)
    • Shapur II (309-79)
    • Khosru I (531-79)
    • Khosru II (591-628)

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    Seljuk Ceramic Motif shape
    Seljuk Ceramic Motif Shape
    The Seljuk migrated into western Asia in the 10th century while fighting with various tribes on their way. They accepted Sunni Islam and founded dynasties in Persia, Mesopotamia, Syria and Anatolia. In the 11th century, Seljuk set Isfahan as their capital. The Seljuk period is particularly noteworthy in the development of architectural arts in Iran, specially with respect to minarets.

    Important Seljuk Rulers:
    • Arslan (1009 - 1032)
    • Musa (1032 - 1036)
    • Tughrul (1038/40 - 1063)
    • Alp Arslan (1064 - 1072)
    • Maliq Shah (1072 - 1092)
    • Mahmud I (1092 - 1093)
    • Berqyaruq (1093 - 1104)
    • Mohammed Tapar (1105 - 1118)
    • Mahmud II (1118 - 1131)
    • Sanjar (1131 - 1157)
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    Kurdish Sofreh
    Kurdish Sofreh
    Courtesy of
    Term means "tablecloth". A small flatwoven rectangular cloth which is laid on the ground and on which food can be served or prepared.
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    Soraya Esfandiari Bakhtiari
    Soraya Esfandiari Bakhtiari
    Second wife of late Shah
    Princess Soraya Esfandiari Bakhtiari, the second wife of the former Shah of Iran, who was renowned for her beauty, was born June 22, 1932, to a German mother and a father who was a member of Iran's powerful Bakhtiari family. She met Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi in Tehran, Iran, in 1950, and married him on Feb.12, 1951. After they failed to have children, the shah divorced her in 1958. Soraya died in Paris Thursday Oct. 25, 2001.
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    Souf is a type of weaving technique in which the background is lower and pile embossing in a rug. The majority of souf rugs were made in cities such as Kashan and Tabriz. However, there are some tribal rugs such as Turkmen tent bands and some Baluch rugs that have mixed pile and flatweave format. In these days the majority of Souf rugs are coming from China and India.
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    Soumak Kelim rug
    A flat-weave rug made from a technique that produces a herringbone effect. This special weaving technique is also known as weft wrapping. Looks similar to embroidery work.(More)
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    Typical Tabriz Rug Design
    Typical Tabriz Rug
    A city in northwestern Iran which has a major weaving tradition dating to the 15th century. It was at this time that weavers from Tabriz introduced the curvilinear designs to the courts at Istanbul. After a decline of a few hundred years, Tabriz began re-establishing its position in the mid 19th century as the market center for the export of Persian rugs to the west.Tabriz weavers have a reputation of copying designs from other areas of Iran and therefore the best way to establish the true origin of a Tabriz is by examining the rug's structure. Tabrizes are double wefted, Turkish knot is dominant, warps and wefts are of cotton and are mostly undyed (at times however, wefts may be either pale blue or light gray). Many designs are used and include medallions, hunting patterns, prayer and pictorial rugs. Some superb silk Tabrizes were woven during the late 19th century. (More)
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    A brown pigment found in leaves and other parts of plants. It causes the brown color of leaves after all other colors have disappeared. It is present throughout the growing season but is masked by the chlorophylls (greens), xanthophylls and carotenes (yellows and oranges), and anthocyanin (reds and purples). Tannin solutions are acid and have an astringent taste. Oak bark was an important source of Tannin.
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    Tekke Turkmen rug
    Tekke Turkmen
    A large Turkoman tribe currently inhabiting the northeastern part of Iran and the area around Herat in Afghanistan. Bokhara rugs have small, repeating geometric designs and normally fine quality. The elephant foot and octagonal 'gul' motifs tend to look best in smaller sizes that make the most of the intricate pattern. Tekke tribes are the main producer of Bokhara rugs. Tekke rugs are not the hardest wearing rugs so they are recommended more for decorative use than high traffic areas. These rugs usually come in greens, reds, whites, and browns. Asymmetrical knots are used on a double wefted wool foundation. Warps are usually ivory and the wefts are brown. Knot counts are high. The Tekke gul is an indented octagon.
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    Tree Bark:

    Tree Bark
    Tree Bark
    A widely cultivated tropical plant of India (Curcuma tinctoria) with yellow flowers and an aromatic root which is used as a spice and yellow dye.
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    Turmeric Rug
    A widely cultivated tropical plant of India (Curcuma tinctoria) with yellow flowers and an aromatic root which is used as a spice and yellow dye.
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    Ushak Rug
    A town of west central Turkey with a tradition of rug production which began as early as the 15th century. It is most famous for its 16th century star, medallion and prayer rug designs. At the end of the 19th century, due to the demand for large room size rugs in Europe and the United States, a production on a large scale commercial basis began taking place there. Rugs from the Ushak region have wool pile on wool foundation and most are crudely made with low knot counts. Most Ushaks have the medallion design or the all over pattern design. Fine Ushaks with attractive designs and good color combinations are very sought after for their decorative purposes.
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    Varamin Rug
    Memling guls Design
    A group of 16th and 17th century Persian carpets decorated with flowers springing from vases. Most are directional rugs and can be viewed from one angle only.
    VARAMIN is located 40 kilometers southeast of TEHRAN. VARAMIN has been in fact one of the largest and oldest villages of IRAN. VARAMIN rugs depicting the Mina Khani and Memling guls designs. Rugs are woven on a cotton foundation and the asymmetric knot is used.(More)
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    Vase Carpet:

    Kerman Vase Pattern
    Vase Carpet
    A group of 16th and 17th century Persian carpets decorated with flowers springing from vases. Most are directional rugs and can be viewed from one angle only.
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    Verneh (Verne):

    Verneh Azeri
    Verhen Azeri
    Courtesy of
    Verneh is flatweave format that usually has the "S" shaped dragon motif or squares and framing either geometric or animal motifs. Verneh has similar knot formation very similar with soumak structure. Verneh is also known as term "Sileh". (More)
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    War Rugs:

    Afghan War Rugs
    Afghan War Rugs
    War rugs woven in Afghanistan during the Russian occupation in the mid 1980's. Subjects of these rugs usually are of weapons include tanks, fighter planes, helicopters, grenades and guns.
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    William Morris:

    William Morris
    The English design firm named for its founder that specialized in adopting Middle Eastern designs to western tastes. Now applied to the designs used in a variety of rugs.(More)
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    Wilton Rugs:

    Wilton Rug
    Wilton Rug
    A British production center of machine made rugs. In 1825, the Wilton company took over the Axminster looms, and for the next one hundred years (until 1924) produced handmade rugs as well.(More)
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    Xerxes(Xeroxes) I King of Persia:(Ahasurerus)(Khashayarshah)

    Xerxes I King of Persia
    Xerxes(Xeroxes) I
    King of Persia
    Xerxes(Xeroxes) became king of Persia at the death of his father Darius the Great in 485, at a time when his father was preparing a new expedition against Greece and had to face an uprising in Egypt. Xerxes married to Esther(Settareh in Farsi), his Jewish wife. (More)
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    Yuruk Rug
    The Turkish word for nomad. It is used to describe any nomad living in Turkey. The correct spelling includes special characters (double dots) over the U's.(More)
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    Yalameh Rug
    Yalameh Rug
    A term used to describe village rugs in western Iran which have motifs of the Khamseh, Qashqai and Lori tribes. Designs of three latchhook diamond medallions are typical and these are surrounded by numerous small geometric and animal motifs. Rugs are woven on wool foundation and the asymmetrical knot is used.(More)
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    Yastik Rug
    Yastik Rug
    A 3ft x 1ft Turkish rug usually used as a pillow cover or cushion cover. Morehouse has written the definitive book on Yastiks. If you are a Yastik collector than this is the book to have. Good color pictures and enough material to see various types in an array that represents changes over time. An excellent tool for allowing collectors to assess their own collection. (More)
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    yazd rug
    Yazd Rug
    A central Iranian city weaving rugs of medallion designs similar to Kermans or Sarouks. Main colors are blue, red and ivory. Wefts can be either wool or cotton and warps are of cotton only. The asymmetrical knot is used. (More)
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    Yomud Rug
    Yomud rug
    One of the main Turkoman tribes. Early rugs display guls in vertical columns while later pieces have them in offset rows. Yomud rugs are more colorful than any other Turkoman tribal rugs. Main field color is reddish brown while borders are frequently in ivory. The symmetrical knot is the one most often used. Other weavings include, chuvals, torbas, asmalyks, engsis and various tent bags. (More)
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    Hamoon Lake Zabol
    Hamoon Lake
    Zabol is 230 km (140 Miles) from Zahedan the capital of Baluchestan in Southeastern section of IRAN. Zabol is a mixed city of Baluch and native Zabol that they called Sistanis .They speak Sistani which is a dialect of Farsi. Majority of people from Zabol are Shiite Moslem unlike the majority of Baluch. Moreover, they are the latest immigrant to Baluchestan. Their arrival dated back to around 200-300 years ago. Many of the Zaboli (Sistanis) have intermingled and mixed with the Baluch. Nonetheless, a hard core of Zaboli have maintained their original tradition and links to Khorasan, and Afghanistan.
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    Zakatala Rug
    Zakatala Rug
    Courtesy of
    A region in northern Azerbaijan in the Caucasus known for production of antique rugs. All wool rugs are woven with the symmetrical knots. Designs are of bold and geometric motifs and of colorful stripes.(More)
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    Zand Dynasty:

    Karim Khan Zand
    Karim Khan Zand
    Zand Dynasty Founder
    1747 - 1779
    Mohammad Karim Khan Zand (ca. 1705-1779) founded the rule of the Zand dynasty in Persia (today Iran) in 1750.
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    Zagros Mountain:

    Zagros Mountain
    Zagros Mountain
    The Zagros Mountains are the major mountain system of Western Iran. Zagros extending from the Turkey-Iran-Iraq border in the north, and from south extened to near the Strait of Hormuz on the Persian Gulf. A complex of many parallel ranges separated by valleys and plains, the Zagros Mountains have numerous peaks higher than 3,050 m (10,000 ft), some of which have perpetual snow cover. The highest peak is Zard Kuh (4,548 m/14,921 ft). Many of the valleys have fertile soils, and agriculture and livestock raising are important to the region's economy.
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    Ziegler and Co.:

    Ziegler rug
    Ziegler rug
    Ziegler and Co. was a German firm based in Manchester (England) who was actively involved in both the Opium and Carpet trade. Ziegler set up looms in Sultanabad and helped start the boom in carpets from Arak (Sultanabad) province. The company exported a large number of rugs from Iran to Europe from the mid 19th century until the early 20th century. Persian rugs were designed according to western tastes. Tabrizes, Mahals and Sultanabads produced under the guidance of the Ziegler Co. are known today as the Ziegler Carpets. (More)
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    Zili-e-Sultan(Zilli es Sultan):

    Zili Sultan Rug
    Courtesy of
    The super-fine Persian shop rugs of 1900-1925/1930, e.g., the Fereghan or Mishan Malayer so-called "Zili Sultan" rugs appeared to have used black synthetics at the same time they were used in the Istanbuli copies. A carpet design of repeated vases with floral arrangements. The Zilil es Sultani pattern is a vase filled with flowers flanked by two birds in a repeat pattern. How then does the The Zil es Sultani pattern relate to The Zil es Sultan, Masud Mirza. The Prince while son of the Shah was not in the line of royal descent. Consequently although he was his fathers favorite he cold not inherit the throne or display the Imperial symbols. So in the style of the royal symbols he adopted his own. (More)
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    Fravahar Ahura Mazada, Zoroastrian Symbol
    Follower of Zoroaster and Zoroastrianism. The Zoroastrian religion was expounded sometime before 600 BC by the ancient Persian prophet, Zarathustra, who lived in what is now eastern Iran. Some scholars, however, say the prophet, whose name means "rich in camels," dates back as far as 1200 BC. Central to the religion is a concept of righteousness or natural law, the notion of a supreme all-knowing and benign God, and the rejection of polytheism.
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